## Section2.11Variables, Expressions, and Equations Chapter Review

### Subsection2.11.1Variables and Evaluating Expressions

In SectionÂ 2.1 we covered the definitions of variables and expressions, and how to evaluate an expression with a particular number. We learned the formulas for perimeter and area of rectangles, triangles, and circles.

##### Evaluating Expressions

When we evaluate an expression's value, we substitute each variable with its given value.

###### Example2.11.1

Evaluate the value of $\frac{5}{9}(F - 32)$ if $F=212\text{.}$

\begin{align*} \frac{5}{9}(F - 32)\amp=\frac{5}{9}(212 - 32)\\ \amp=\frac{5}{9}(180)\\ \amp=100 \end{align*}
##### Substituting a Negative Number

When we substitute a variable with a negative number, it's important to use parentheses around the number.

###### Example2.11.2

Evaluate the following expressions if $x=-3\text{.}$

1. \begin{aligned}[t] x^2\amp=(-3)^2\\ \amp=9 \end{aligned}

2. \begin{aligned}[t] x^3\amp=(-3)^3\\ \amp=(-3)(-3)(-3)\\ \amp=-27 \end{aligned}

3. \begin{aligned}[t] -x^2\amp=-(-3)^2\\ \amp=-9 \end{aligned}

4. \begin{aligned}[t] -x^3\amp=-(-3)^3\\ \amp=-(-27)\\ \amp=27 \end{aligned}

### Subsection2.11.2Geometry Formulas

In SectionÂ 2.2 we established the following formulas.

Perimeter of a Rectangle

$P=2(\ell+w)$

Area of a Rectangle

$A=\ell w$

Area of a Triangle

$A=\frac{1}{2}bh$

Circumference of a Circle

$c=2\pi r$

Area of a Circle

$A=\pi r^2$

Volume of a Rectangular Prism

$V=wdh$

Volume of a Cylinder

$V=\pi r^2h$

Volume of a Rectangular Prism or Cylinder

$V=Bh$

### Subsection2.11.3Combining Like Terms

In SectionÂ 2.3 we covered the definitions of a term and how to combine like terms.

###### Example2.11.3

List the terms in the expression $5x-3y+\frac{2w}{3}\text{.}$

Explanation

The expression has three terms that are being added, $5x\text{,}$ $-3y$ and $\frac{2w}{3}\text{.}$

###### Example2.11.4

Simplify the expression $5x-3x^2+2x+5x^2\text{,}$ if possible, by combining like terms.

Explanation

This expression has four terms: $5x\text{,}$ $-3x^2\text{,}$ $2x\text{,}$ and $5x^2\text{.}$ Both $5x$ and $2x$ are like terms; also $-3x^2$ and $5x^2$ are like terms. When we combine like terms, we get:

\begin{equation*} 5x-3x^2+2x+5x^2=7x+2x^2 \end{equation*}

Note that we cannot combine $7x$ and $2x^2$ because $x$ and $x^2$ represent different quantities.

### Subsection2.11.4Equations and Inequalities as True/False Statements

In SectionÂ 2.4 we covered the definitions of an equation and an inequality, as well as how to verify if a particular number is a solution to them.

##### Checking Possible Solutions

Given an equation or an inequality (with one variable), checking if some particular number is a solution is just a matter of replacing the value of the variable with the specified number and determining if the resulting equation/inequality is true or false. This may involve some amount of arithmetic simplification.

###### Example2.11.5

Is $-5$ a solution to $2(x+3)-2=4-x\text{?}$

Explanation

To find out, substitute in $-5$ for $x$ and see what happens.

\begin{align*} 2(x+3)-2\amp=4-x\\ 2(\substitute{(-5)}+3)-2\amp\stackrel{?}{=}4-\substitute{(-5)}\\ 2(\highlight{-2})-2\amp\stackrel{?}{=}\highlight{9}\\ \highlight{-4}-2\amp\stackrel{?}{=}9\\ \highlight{-6}\amp\stackrel{\text{no}}{=}9 \end{align*}

So no, $-5$ is not a solution to $2(x+3)-2=4-x\text{.}$

### Subsection2.11.5Solving One-Step Equations

In SectionÂ 2.5 we covered to to add, subtract, multiply, or divide on both sides of an equation to isolate the variable, summarized in FactÂ 2.5.12. We also learned how to state our answer, either as a solution or a solution set. Last we discussed how to solve equations with fractions.

###### Example2.11.6

Solve for $g$ in $\frac{1}{2}=\frac{2}{3}+g\text{.}$

Explanation

We will subtract $\frac{2}{3}$ on both sides of the equation:

\begin{align*} \frac{1}{2}\amp=\frac{2}{3}+g\\ \frac{1}{2}\subtractright{\frac{2}{3}}\amp=\frac{2}{3}+g\subtractright{\frac{2}{3}}\\ \frac{3}{6}-\frac{4}{6}\amp=g\\ -\frac{1}{6}\amp=g \end{align*}

We will check the solution by substituting $g$ in the original equation with $-\frac{1}{6}\text{:}$

\begin{align*} \frac{1}{2}\amp=\frac{2}{3}+g\\ \frac{1}{2}\amp\stackrel{?}{=}\frac{2}{3}+\left(\substitute{-\frac{1}{6}}\right)\\ \frac{1}{2}\amp\stackrel{?}{=}\frac{4}{6}+\left(-\frac{1}{6}\right)\\ \frac{1}{2}\amp\stackrel{?}{=}\frac{3}{6}\\ \frac{1}{2}\amp\stackrel{\checkmark}{=}\frac{1}{2} \end{align*}

The solution $-\frac{1}{6}$ is checked and the solution set is $\left\{-\frac{1}{6}\right\}\text{.}$

### Subsection2.11.6Solving One-Step Inequalities

In SectionÂ 2.6 we covered how solving inequalities is very much like how we solve equations, except that if we multiply or divide by a negative we switch the inequality sign.

##### Solving One-Step Inequalities

When we solve linear inequalities, we also use Properties of Equivalent Equations with one small complication: When we multiply or divide by the same negative number on both sides of an inequality, the direction reverses!

###### Example2.11.7

Solve the inequality $-2x\geq12\text{.}$ State the solution set with both interval notation and set-builder notation.

Explanation

To solve this inequality, we will divide each side by $-2\text{:}$

\begin{align*} -2x\amp\geq12\\ \divideunder{-2x}{-2}\amp\highlight{{}\leq{}}\divideunder{12}{-2}\amp\amp\text{Note the change in direction.}\\ x\amp\leq-6 \end{align*}
• The inequality's solution set in interval notation is $(-\infty,-6]\text{.}$

• The inequality's solution set in set-builder notation is $\{x\mid x\leq-6\}\text{.}$

### Subsection2.11.7Percentages

In SectionÂ 2.7 we covered how to translate sentences with percentages into equations that we can solve.

##### Solving One-Step Equations Involving Percentages

An important skill for solving percent-related problems is to boil down a complicated word problem into a simple form like â$2$ is $50\%$ of $4\text{.}$â

###### Example2.11.8

What percent of $2346.19$ is $1995.98\text{?}$

Using $P$ to represent the unknown quantity, we write and solve the equation:

\begin{align*} \overbrace{\strut P}^{\text{what percent}}\overbrace{\strut \cdot}^{\text{of}} \overbrace{\strut 2346.19}^{\text{\$2346.19}}\amp\overbrace{\strut =}^{\text{is}}\overbrace{\strut 1995.98}^{\text{\$1995.98}}\\ \divideunder{P\cdot 2346.19}{2346.19}\amp=\divideunder{1995.98}{2346.19}\\ P\amp=0.85073\ldots\\ P\amp\approx85.07\% \end{align*}

In summary, $1995.98$ is approximately $85.07\%$ of $2346.19\text{.}$

### Subsection2.11.8Modeling with Equations and Inequalities

In SectionÂ 2.8 we covered how to translate phrases into mathematics, and how to set up equations and inequalities for application models.

##### Modeling with Equations and Inequalities

To set up an equation modeling a real world scenario, the first thing we need to do is to identify what variable we will use. The variable we use will be determined by whatever is unknown in our problem statement. Once we've identified and defined our variable, we'll use the numerical information provided in the equation to set up our equation.

###### Example2.11.9

A bathtub contains 2.5âŻft3 of water. More water is being poured in at a rate of 1.75âŻft3 per minute. When will the amount of water in the bathtub reach 6.25âŻft3?

Explanation

Since the question being asked in this problem starts with âwhen,â we immediately know that the unknown is time. As the volume of water in the tub is measured in ft3 per minute, we know that time needs to be measured in minutes. We'll defined $t$ to be the number of minutes that water is poured into the tub. Since each minute there are 1.75âŻft3 of water added, we will add the expression $1.75t$ to $2.5$ to obtain the total amount of water. Thus the equation we set up is:

\begin{equation*} 2.5+1.75t=6.25 \end{equation*}

### Subsection2.11.9Introduction to Exponent Rules

In SectionÂ 2.9 we covered the rules of exponents for multiplication.

###### Example2.11.10

Simplify the following expressions using the rules of exponents:

1. $-2t^3\cdot 4t^5$

2. $5\left(v^4\right)^2$

3. $-(3u)^2$

4. $(-3z)^2$

Explanation
1. $-2t^3\cdot 4t^5=-8t^8$

2. $5\left(v^4\right)^2=5v^8$

3. $-(3u)^2=-9u^2$

4. $(-3z)^2=9z^2$

### Subsection2.11.10Simplifying Expressions

In SectionÂ 2.10 we covered the definitions of the identities and inverses, and the various algebraic properties. We then learned about the order of operations.

###### Example2.11.11

Use the associative, commutative, and distributive properties to simplify the expression $5x+9(-2x+3)$ as much as possible.

Explanation

We will remove parentheses by the distributive property, and then combine like terms:

\begin{align*} 5x+9(-2x+3)\amp=5x+9(-2x+3)\\ \amp=5x+9(-2x)+9(3)\\ \amp=5x-18x+27\\ \amp=-13x+27 \end{align*}

### Subsection2.11.11Exercises

###### 1

A trapezoidâs area can be calculated by the formula $A=\frac{1}{2}(b_1+b_2)h\text{,}$ where $A$ stands for area, $b_1$ for the first baseâs length, $b_2$ for the second baseâs length, and $h$ for height.

Find the area of the trapezoid below.

###### 2

A trapezoidâs area can be calculated by the formula $A=\frac{1}{2}(b_1+b_2)h\text{,}$ where $A$ stands for area, $b_1$ for the first baseâs length, $b_2$ for the second baseâs length, and $h$ for height.

Find the area of the trapezoid below.

###### 3

To convert a temperature measured in degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, there is a formula:

\begin{equation*} C={\frac{5}{9}\!\left(F-32\right)} \end{equation*}

where $C$ represents the temperature in degrees Celsius and $F$ represents the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

If a temperature is $122 {^\circ}\text{F}\text{,}$ what is that temperature measured in Celsius?

###### 4

To convert a temperature measured in degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, there is a formula:

\begin{equation*} C={\frac{5}{9}\!\left(F-32\right)} \end{equation*}

where $C$ represents the temperature in degrees Celsius and $F$ represents the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

If a temperature is $14 {^\circ}\text{F}\text{,}$ what is that temperature measured in Celsius?

###### 5

Evaluate the expression ${x^{2}}\text{:}$

1. When $x=6\text{,}$ $\displaystyle{{x^{2}}=}$

2. When $x=-6\text{,}$ $\displaystyle{{x^{2}}=}$

###### 6

Evaluate the expression ${y^{2}}\text{:}$

1. When $y=3\text{,}$ $\displaystyle{{y^{2}}=}$

2. When $y=-9\text{,}$ $\displaystyle{{y^{2}}=}$

###### 7

Evaluate the expression ${y^{3}}\text{:}$

1. When $y=5\text{,}$ $\displaystyle{{y^{3}}=}$

2. When $y=-3\text{,}$ $\displaystyle{{y^{3}}=}$

###### 8

Evaluate the expression ${r^{3}}\text{:}$

1. When $r=3\text{,}$ $\displaystyle{{r^{3}}=}$

2. When $r=-5\text{,}$ $\displaystyle{{r^{3}}=}$

###### 9

List the terms in each expression.

1. ${4t+2z+6}$

2. ${7z^{2}}$

3. ${9t+y}$

4. ${2t+7t}$

###### 10

List the terms in each expression.

1. ${8t^{2}+6+2x^{2}-t^{2}}$

2. ${5x^{2}-6y^{2}+7y}$

3. ${-5z^{2}+3t^{2}-7y^{2}}$

4. ${-2y^{2}+4-3s+2t}$

###### 11

Simplify each expression, if possible, by combining like terms.

1. ${8t-t+3t+9t}$

2. ${-8z^{2}+5z^{2}+6z^{2}}$

3. ${3z-3z}$

4. ${-3x^{2}-2-7x}$

###### 12

Simplify each expression, if possible, by combining like terms.

1. ${5t^{2}-8y^{2}+4+2t}$

2. ${7t-2t^{2}}$

3. ${-7z^{2}-2z^{2}+8x^{2}}$

4. ${-6s+x}$

###### 13

Simplify each expression, if possible, by combining like terms.

1. ${{\frac{4}{3}}t+{\frac{4}{9}}}$

2. ${-{\frac{1}{7}}y^{2}+y^{2} - {\frac{4}{3}}y^{2}+{\frac{2}{7}}s^{2}}$

3. ${-{\frac{3}{8}}y+{\frac{3}{2}}z^{2}-3z^{2}+2x}$

4. ${-{\frac{2}{3}}t-s}$

###### 14

Simplify each expression, if possible, by combining like terms.

1. ${-{\frac{1}{6}}t - {\frac{9}{4}}t}$

2. ${-{\frac{3}{8}}s-z - {\frac{2}{5}}s}$

3. ${{\frac{1}{3}}y^{2} - {\frac{9}{5}}y^{2}}$

4. ${-{\frac{2}{9}}y - {\frac{1}{3}}y^{2}+{\frac{1}{4}}y^{2}+9y}$

###### 15

Is $-2$ a solution for $x$ in the equation ${2x+2}={2-\left(5+x\right)}\text{?}$ Evaluating the left and right sides gives:

 ${2x+2}$ $=$ ${2-\left(5+x\right)}$ ${}\stackrel{?}{=}{}$

So $-2$

• is

• is not

a solution to ${2x+2}={2-\left(5+x\right)}\text{.}$

###### 16

Is $-1$ a solution for $x$ in the equation ${4x-4}={-3-\left(4+x\right)}\text{?}$ Evaluating the left and right sides gives:

 ${4x-4}$ $=$ ${-3-\left(4+x\right)}$ ${}\stackrel{?}{=}{}$

So $-1$

• is

• is not

a solution to ${4x-4}={-3-\left(4+x\right)}\text{.}$

###### 17

Is $1$ a solution for $x$ in the inequality ${-4x^{2}+5x}\le{2x-7}\text{?}$ Evaluating the left and right sides gives:

 ${-4x^{2}+5x}$ $\le$ ${2x-7}$ ${}\stackrel{?}{\le}{}$

So $1$

• is

• is not

a solution to ${-4x^{2}+5x}\le{2x-7}\text{.}$

###### 18

Is $2$ a solution for $x$ in the inequality ${-2x^{2}+5x}\le{2x-12}\text{?}$ Evaluating the left and right sides gives:

 ${-2x^{2}+5x}$ $\le$ ${2x-12}$ ${}\stackrel{?}{\le}{}$

So $2$

• is

• is not

a solution to ${-2x^{2}+5x}\le{2x-12}\text{.}$

###### 19

Solve the equation.

$\displaystyle{ {t+7}={2} }$

###### 20

Solve the equation.

$\displaystyle{ {t+4}={1} }$

###### 21

Solve the equation.

$\displaystyle{ {-10}={t-6} }$

###### 22

Solve the equation.

$\displaystyle{ {-9}={x-7} }$

###### 23

Solve the equation.

$\displaystyle{ {96}={-8x} }$

###### 24

Solve the equation.

$\displaystyle{ {24}={-3y} }$

###### 25

Solve the equation.

$\displaystyle{ {{\frac{5}{13}}c}={25} }$

###### 26

Solve the equation.

$\displaystyle{ {{\frac{4}{7}}A}={12} }$

###### 27

The pie chart represents a collectorâs collection of signatures from various artists.

If the collector has a total of $1450$ signatures, there are signatures by Sting.

###### 28

The pie chart represents a collectorâs collection of signatures from various artists.

If the collector has a total of $1650$ signatures, there are signatures by Sting.

###### 29

A community college conducted a survey about the number of students riding each bus line available. The following bar graph is the result of the survey.

What percent of students ride Bus #1?

Approximately of students ride Bus #1.

###### 30

A community college conducted a survey about the number of students riding each bus line available. The following bar graph is the result of the survey.

What percent of students ride Bus #1?

Approximately of students ride Bus #1.

###### 31

The following is a nutrition fact label from a certain macaroni and cheese box.

The highlighted row means each serving of macaroni and cheese in this box contains ${7\ {\rm g}}$ of fat, which is $14\%$ of an average personâs daily intake of fat. Whatâs the recommended daily intake of fat for an average person?

The recommended daily intake of fat for an average person is .

###### 32

The following is a nutrition fact label from a certain macaroni and cheese box.

The highlighted row means each serving of macaroni and cheese in this box contains ${5.5\ {\rm g}}$ of fat, which is $10\%$ of an average personâs daily intake of fat. Whatâs the recommended daily intake of fat for an average person?

The recommended daily intake of fat for an average person is .

###### 33

Jerry used to make $13$ dollars per hour. After he earned his Bachelorâs degree, his pay rate increased to $48$ dollars per hour. What is the percentage increase in Jerryâs salary?

The percentage increase is .

###### 34

Eileen used to make $14$ dollars per hour. After she earned her Bachelorâs degree, her pay rate increased to $49$ dollars per hour. What is the percentage increase in Eileenâs salary?

The percentage increase is .

###### 35

After a $10\%$ increase, a town has $550$ people. What was the population before the increase?

Before the increase, the townâs population was .

###### 36

After a $70\%$ increase, a town has $1020$ people. What was the population before the increase?

Before the increase, the townâs population was .

###### 37

A bicycle for sale costs ${\254.88}\text{,}$ which includes $6.2\%$ sales tax. What was the cost before sales tax?

Assume the bicycleâs price before sales tax is $p$ dollars. Write an equation to model this scenario. There is no need to solve it.

###### 38

A bicycle for sale costs ${\283.77}\text{,}$ which includes $5.1\%$ sales tax. What was the cost before sales tax?

Assume the bicycleâs price before sales tax is $p$ dollars. Write an equation to model this scenario. There is no need to solve it.

###### 39

The property taxes on a $2100$-square-foot house are ${\4{,}179.00}$ per year. Assuming these taxes are proportional, what are the property taxes on a $1700$-square-foot house?

Assume property taxes on a $1700$-square-foot house is $t$ dollars. Write an equation to model this scenario. There is no need to solve it.

###### 40

The property taxes on a $1600$-square-foot house are ${\1{,}600.00}$ per year. Assuming these taxes are proportional, what are the property taxes on a $2000$-square-foot house?

Assume property taxes on a $2000$-square-foot house is $t$ dollars. Write an equation to model this scenario. There is no need to solve it.

###### 41

A swimming pool is being filled with water from a garden hose at a rate of $5$ gallons per minute. If the pool already contains $30$ gallons of water and can hold $135$ gallons, after how long will the pool overflow?

Assume $m$ minutes later, the pool would overflow. Write an equation to model this scenario. There is no need to solve it.

###### 42

A swimming pool is being filled with water from a garden hose at a rate of $8$ gallons per minute. If the pool already contains $40$ gallons of water and can hold $280$ gallons, after how long will the pool overflow?

Assume $m$ minutes later, the pool would overflow. Write an equation to model this scenario. There is no need to solve it.

###### 43

Use the commutative property of addition to write an equivalent expression to ${5b+31}\text{.}$

###### 44

Use the commutative property of addition to write an equivalent expression to ${6q+79}\text{.}$

###### 45

Use the associative property of multiplication to write an equivalent expression to ${3\!\left(4r\right)}\text{.}$

###### 46

Use the associative property of multiplication to write an equivalent expression to ${4\!\left(7m\right)}\text{.}$

###### 47

Use the distributive property to write an equivalent expression to ${10\!\left(p+2\right)}$ that has no grouping symbols.

###### 48

Use the distributive property to write an equivalent expression to ${7\!\left(q+6\right)}$ that has no grouping symbols.

###### 49

Use the distributive property to simplify ${4+9\!\left(2+4y\right)}$ completely.

###### 50

Use the distributive property to simplify ${9+4\!\left(9+3r\right)}$ completely.

###### 51

Use the distributive property to simplify ${6-4\!\left(1-6a\right)}$ completely.

###### 52

Use the distributive property to simplify ${3-9\!\left(-5-6b\right)}$ completely.

###### 53

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

${r^{12}}\cdot{r^{17}}$

###### 54

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

${t^{14}}\cdot{t^{11}}$

###### 55

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

$\displaystyle{\left(y^{10}\right)^{3}}$

###### 56

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

$\displaystyle{\left(t^{11}\right)^{10}}$

###### 57

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

$\displaystyle{\left(3x\right)^4}$

###### 58

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

$\displaystyle{\left(2r\right)^2}$

###### 59

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

$\displaystyle{({-2t^{5}})\cdot({4t^{16}})}$

###### 60

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

$\displaystyle{({-5y^{7}})\cdot({3y^{9}})}$

###### 61

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

1. $\displaystyle{{\left(-2b^{3}\right)^{6}}=}$

2. $\displaystyle{{-\left(2b^{3}\right)^{6}}=}$

###### 62

Use the properties of exponents to simplify the expression.

1. $\displaystyle{{\left(-2a^{3}\right)^{2}}=}$

2. $\displaystyle{{-\left(2a^{3}\right)^{2}}=}$

###### 63

Simplify the following expression.

${\left(3r^{3}\right)^{4}\!\left(r^{2}\right)^{2}}$=

###### 64

Simplify the following expression.

${\left(5t^{2}\right)^{2}\!\left(t^{5}\right)^{2}}$=

###### 65

Simplify the following expressions if possible.

1. $\displaystyle{ {p^{2}+2p^{2}}=}$

2. $\displaystyle{ (p^{2})(2p^{2})=}$

3. $\displaystyle{ {p^{2}-4p^{3}}=}$

4. $\displaystyle{ (p^{2})(-4p^{3})=}$

###### 66

Simplify the following expressions if possible.

1. $\displaystyle{ {-2q+4q}=}$

2. $\displaystyle{ (-2q)(4q)=}$

3. $\displaystyle{ {-2q-q^{4}}=}$

4. $\displaystyle{ (-2q)(-q^{4})=}$

###### 67

Multiply the polynomials.

${-10x^{2}}\left({3x^{2}+5x}\right)=$

###### 68

Multiply the polynomials.

${7x^{2}}\left({9x^{2}+10x}\right)=$