Formal Outline Example
NOTE: This is a persuasion speech that is approximately 15 minutes long. It is a speech on a question of fact. It is presented to you as an example of what a formal outline should look like. Your formal outlines will be appropriate to the assignment, including type of speech and length.
Topic: Cultural Behaviors
General Purpose: To persuade
Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that cultural values are enacted through nonverbal behavior
Central Idea: That the macroenvironment of culture is reflected in the microenvironment, specifically that the behaviors of spatial cues, eye contact, and verbal behavior reflect the co-cultural values of the dominant U.S. culture and women.
I. Attention-gaining opening: Keiko and Sarah
Thesis: There is a connection between culture, gender and nonverbal behaviors
II. Definition: Samovar and Porter
III. General focus: different world views, beliefs and values
Transition: First let me explain how our cultural values are enacted through our communicative behaviors
I. The macroenvironment is reflected in the microenvironment.
A. The macroenvironment is our culture
1. One primary value in America is independence
B. The microenvironment is the communication situation
a. sense of self comes from ourselves
2. A primary value for Japan is interdependency
b. we learn through family, insitiutions, proverbs: "you've made your bed, now sleep"
a. sense of self comes from the group
3. A secondary value both Americans and Japanese have is education, but value it differently
b. proverbs: "The nail which sticks up gets hit" and "When there are three people present there will be a great idea."
Transition: It is this interplay of values that determines the behaviors. The behaviors are enacted by how the values fit together. This is seen on the international level. The same is true of co-cultures.
II. A co-culture is of the dominant culture but also has its own values and beliefs
A. The dominant culture within the U.S. is white heterosexual male
Transition: When you blend the dominant culture with the co-culture, you get a surprising array of interactive behaviors.
1. Eakins and Eakins: competitiveness, possessions, self motivation
B. Women are one of the co-cultures within America
2. Most cultures are patriarchal
1. Relationally oriented, cooperation, other-interested
2. The Netherlands and Sweden matriarchal
III. While cultural values are reflected in all interactions, there are differences during interactions between males and females-blends of both
A. This is seen in spatial cues
Internal Summary: As you can see, each culture's value system is reflected through their behaviors. And the whole time we are assuming the other's behavior is the same as ours. Is it any wonder we are constantly saying, "I just don't understand (men!) (women!)!" And even if we think we understand that behaviors are different, we still don't get it.
1. Males expand into available space
B. Eye behavior also shows these differences
a. taking more space
2. Females contract into smallest space
b. using more gestures
c. holding arms away
a. taking less space
3. When males and females interact, the females respond according to their partner and males are responded to
b. using less gestures
c. holding arms inward
1. Males tend to control their partners' eye behavior: competitive (dog)
C. Besides this, our language is completely different
a. look away while talking
2. Females tend to gain relational information
b. look away while listening
a. look more while talking
3. When they interact, the dominance of the male is seen during the interaction, with the female responding, the male being responded to
b. look more while listening
1. Males use competitive language
2. Females use cooperative language
3. When interact with each other, males believe females have the advantage
Transition: Part of this is due to the fact that not everything is different.
IV. There are similarities also
A. Both males and females share many nonverbal behaviors
(Review) So you can see, it is often the assumption that all communicative behaviors are the same, or are different, that creates misunderstandings.
B. Both American and Japanese share many nonverbal behaviors
I. Review, summary
II. Tolerance comes from realization of world view
III. General intercultural process
IV. Keiko and Sarah
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