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PrefaceTo All


This book is avaialble as an eBook, a free PDF, or printed and bound. All versions offer the same content and are synchronized such that cross-refernces match across versions.

  • A web version is available at, and this version is recommended. It offers interactive elements and easier navigation than print versions.

  • A PDF is available at Some content is in color, but most of the colorized content from the eBook has been converted to black and white to ensure adequate contrast when printing. The exceptions are the graphs generated by WeBWorK.

  • Printed and bound copies are available online, through various merchants. Contact the authors if you have trouble finding the latest version online. For each online sale, all royalties go to a PCC Foundation account, where roughly half will fund student scholarships, and half will fund continued maintenance of this book and other OER.

Copying Content

The graphs and other images that appear in this manual may be copied in various file formats using the eBook version. Below each image are links to .png, .eps, .svg, .pdf, and .tex files that contain the image.

Similarly, tables can be copied from the eBook version and pasted into applications like MS Word. However, mathematical content within tables will not always paste correctly without a little extra effort as described below.

Mathematical content can be copied from the eBook. To copy math content into MS Word, right-click or control-click over the math content, and click to Show Math As MathML Code. Copy the resulting code, and Paste Special into Word. In the Paste Special menu, paste it as Unformatted Text. To copy math content into source, right-click or control-click over the math content, and click to Show Math As TeX Commands.


The HTML version is intended to meet or exceed all web accessibility standards. If you encounter an accessibility issue, please report it to the editor.

  • All graphs and images will eventually have meaningful alt text that communicates what a sighted person would see, without necessarily giving away anything that is intended to be deduced from the image. Construction of alt text is underway, and will be complete by Summer 2018.

  • All math content is rendered using MathJax. MathJax has a contextual menu that can be accessed in several ways, depending on what operating system and browser you are using. The most common way is to right-click or control-click on some piece of math content.

  • In the MathJax contextual menu, you may set options for triggering a zoom effect on math content, and also by what factor the zoom will be.

  • If you change the MathJax renderer to MathML, then a screen reader will generally have success verbalizing the math content.

Tablets and Smartphones

PreTeXt documents like this lab manual are “mobile-friendly”. When you view the HTML version, the display adapts to whatever screen size or window size you are using. A math teacher will always recommend that you do not study from the small screen on a phone, but if it's necessary, this manual gives you that option.

WeBWorK for Online Homework

Most exercises are available in a ready-to-use collection of WeBWorK problem sets. A demonstration WeBWorK course is available at where guest login is enabled. Anyone faculty interested in using these problem sets should contact the authors.